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Lexicon of Names

Common name elements in Tolkien's works

This lexicon lists some of the more common elements found in the names of places and people in Tolkien's work. These are mainly derived from Elvish tongues, but some common forms from other languages, such as Old English or Adûnaic, are also included, as well as a few less recognisable words that are still found in modern English. There are very large number of these name elements, and this page is being expanded to include more over time.

Where possible, the particular Elvish source language for an element is shown, but sometimes this is not possible (for example, where a common root word occurs in more than one language). In cases like this, terms are simply labelled 'Elvish root'.

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val (Quenya) an element derived from the root bal-, describing things of great power (hence for example Valar, 'Powers'). Only certainly seen in this form (without any suffix or modifier) in Valmar, the name of the city of the Valar, which was itself derived from Valimar (literally 'home of the Powers'). Arguably, it might also be seen in Araval, the name of the thirteenth King of Arthedain, which could be translated 'powerful King'. Despite appearances, it is not contained in the Eagle name Landroval, whose final element comes from rofal, meaning 'great wing'.
vali (Quenya) a plural form of Vala 'Power', seen prominently in Valinor ('Land of the Powers') the home of the Valar in the West, and also in Valimar ('home of the Powers', sometimes seen in the form Valmar).
variag (possibly Old Norse) the name used for one of the warlike people of Khand is never explicitly explained, but its source is possibly historical: Variags was one name used for a real people related to the Vikings. More usually called Varangians, these people were associated with lands of western Russia and the Black Sea. If this connection is valid, then the ultimate source is probably Old Norse Væringjar, meaning something like 'those sworn to serve'.

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