In Númenor, the power of the Kings and Queens was symbolised not by a crown, but by a Sceptre, held by Elros Tar-Minyatur and all his ruling descendants to the time of Ar-Pharazôn. Among the early Kings, it was normal to voluntarily surrender the Sceptre to an Heir, but this tradition was abandoned in later years. Ar-Pharazôn carried the Sceptre with him when he sailed to attack Blessed Realm, and it was lost with the King and all his armies. In Middle-earth, the exiled Númenóreans maintained this tradition, and their High King held the Sceptre of Annúminas, which had been the symbol of the Lords of Andúnië in Númenor.
The earliest reference we have to the Sceptre is at the end of Elros' reign, when his son Vardamir passed it on to his own son, Tar-Amandil. This shows that Elros must have held it at some time, and it seems most likely to have been created especially for the beginning of his reign.
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