The Encyclopedia of Arda - an interactive guide to the world of J.R.R. Tolkien
Founded II 3320; the North-kingdom was divided in III 861 and lost III 1974; reunited III 30191
Founded by Elendil and his sons
Ruled by the House of Elendil
Numerous; the capital in the North was at Annúminas and later Fornost; in the South the capital was at Osgiliath and later Minas Tirith
Other names


About this entry:

  • Updated 27 February 2016
  • Updates planned: 1
Encyclopedia of Arda Timeline
Years of the Trees First Age Second Age Third Age Fourth Age and Beyond
Map of the Kingdoms of the Dúnedain

Dashed lines show the greatest extent of the borders of Gondor. Solid lines show the borders of Arnor throughout its existence, and those of Gondor at the close of the Third Age.

Arnor and Gondor, the twin Kingdoms founded before the beginning of the Third Age by Elendil and his sons Isildur and Anárion. The Kingdoms, and especially the South-kingdom of Gondor, came to dominate the history of that Age.

Arnor II 3320 to III 861
Its last successor kingdom, Arthedain, fell in III 1974

Originally the chief of the Two Kingdoms, Arnor encompassed most of Eriador from the Gwathló northwards, excepting only a sliver of land westward of the river Lhûn. It was founded by Elendil, who ruled from Annúminas as High King over the Two Kingdoms. The death of Elendil in the War of the Last Alliance, and of his heir Isildur shortly afterwards, caused the division of the Two Kingdoms, and after this time the Kings of Arnor, though descendants of High King Elendil, held no direct control over the South-kingdom of Gondor. After the death of Eärendur the tenth King, disputes among his sons caused the North-kingdom to break into three lesser domains, which fell one by one to the power of Angmar and its Witch-king. Arthedain was the last of these to fall, surviving independently for more than a thousand years before it was overrun by the forces of the Witch-king.
Gondor Founded II 3320; survived into the Fourth Age
Gondor was founded as the second of the Two Kingdoms, ruled jointly by Elendil's sons Isildur and Anárion under their father's High Kingship in the North. The loss of Isildur and his elder heirs forced a change in these arrangements, and Anárion's son Meneldil became the first King of an independent Gondor. His line ruled the South-kingdom for two millennia, until the last King, Eärnur, was lost in Minas Morgul. From that time Gondor was under the rule of the hereditary Stewards, and remained so until the time of the War of the Ring. In that war the Heir of Isildur, a Ranger named Aragorn, reclaimed the High Kingship and formed the Two Kingdoms into a Reunited Kingdom.



The timeline for this entry shows a gap between III 1974 (the loss of Arthedain, the last remnant of the North-kingdom) and III 3019 (when Aragorn re-established the rule of the Two Kingdoms). The kingdom of Gondor in the South survived during this time, though for most of this period it was ruled by a Steward, and so the term 'kingdom' is open to question even there.

For acknowledgements and references, see the Disclaimer & Bibliography page.

Website services kindly sponsored by Axiom Software Ltd.

Original content © copyright Mark Fisher 2000, 2014-2016. All rights reserved. For conditions of reuse, see the Site FAQ.