The name that the Dwarves gave to their own race was Khazâd, but the Elves found this name difficult to fit to their own system of sounds, and most usually referred to the Dwarves simply as the Naugrim or 'Stunted People'. During the First Age, rumours came across the Ered Luin of the greatest of all Dwarvish cities, a vast underground dwelling far to the east known as Khazad-dûm. This name the Elves did attempt to render into Elvish as closely as they could. Hence the element 'Khazâd' became 'Hadhod' (pronounced 'hathod', with a 'th' sound as in English 'these'). To this the Elves appended their own word rond, meaning 'cavern' or 'underground dwelling'.
It's unclear when the name 'Hadhodrond' first came into use, but there is some evidence of its being known in Beleriand before the end of the First Age. It seems to have been more commonly applied in Eregion, the Elvish land that grew up near Khazad-dûm during the Second Age, whose people had friendly relations with the nearby Dwarves (and this perhaps encouraged the use of the term 'Hadhod' rather than the less respectful 'Naugrim').
After the fall and desertion of Khazad-dûm in III 1981, a much better known Elvish name came into use. After this date the Dwarf-city became infested with Orcs and other creatures of Sauron, and so became known as Moria, a name derived from Elvish words meaning 'The Black Chasm'.
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