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Lexicon of Names

Common name elements in Tolkien's works

This lexicon lists some of the more common elements found in the names of places and people in Tolkien's work. These are mainly derived from Elvish tongues, but some common forms from other languages, such as Old English or Adûnaic, are also included, as well as a few less recognisable words that are still found in modern English. There are very large number of these name elements, and this page is being expanded to include more over time.

Where possible, the particular Elvish source language for an element is shown, but sometimes this is not possible (for example, where a common root word occurs in more than one language). In cases like this, terms are simply labelled 'Elvish root'.

-r (Quenya) a plural ending. There were various ways to form plurals in Quenya, but for simple plurals of words ending in a vowel, the usual means of pluralising was to add an '-r' to the word (for words ending in a consonant, the equivalent would be adding an '-i'). So, for example, a singular Power of the West was a Vala, but as a group they were the Valar. Similarly, a single Elf was an Elda, but as a people they were the Eldar. There are numerous examples of this usage (far too many for an exhaustive list) but among the more prominent examples would be Ainur (the plural of Ainu, 'Holy One'), Maiar (the plural of Maia, an angelic being of lesser station than the Powers), Vanyar (the plural of Vanya, a Light Elf), Noldor (the plural of Noldo, a Deep Elf) and Sindar (the plural of Sinda, a Grey-elf). Note that there are many instances of Quenya words ending in -r that are not plurals, for many different reasons. For example, -r is also an old 'agental' ending, indicating a person who takes an action, so (for example) neither Istar ('Wizard') nor Telcontar ('Strider') are plural words.
randir (Sindarin) 'wanderer' or 'pilgrim'. Pronounced 'randeer', this word derived from an Elvish root ran- meaning 'wander' or 'stray'. By far its most prominent use is in Mithrandir, the common Elvish name for Gandalf, which is variously translated as 'Grey Wanderer' or 'Grey Pilgrim'. The element also appears in Aerandir ('Sea wanderer') the name of one the companions of Eärendil. Related is Rána (the 'Wayward'), an Elvish name for the Moon which also derived from the root ran- for 'wander'.
ranga (Sindarin) literally 'pace' or 'stride', but used by the Númenóreans as a unit of measurement, equivalent to approximately 38 inches, or slightly less than one metre. The plural was rangar, and five thousand of these rangar composed one lár, a distance of slightly less than three miles (or about 4.8 kilometres).
ras (Elvish root) originally referring to anything that sticks up or out, this word came to mean 'horn', as in the literal horn of an animal, but was also commonly used in a figurative sense for geographically features. The word appears in several names of mountains, notably Caradhras ('Redhorn'), Methedras (the 'last horn' of the Misty Mountains) and possibly Taras (uncertain, but interpretable as 'high horn'). In the plural form rais it is also seen in Ered Nimrais ('mountains of the white horns') the Elvish name for the White Mountains. The same word was also sometimes used of capes or promontories, as in Ras Morthil (uncertain, but perhaps simply 'dark cape') or Barad Nimras ('tower of the white horn', where the 'white horn' seems to be the headland on which the tower stood).
rath (Sindarin) 'way' or 'street', derived from a root meaning 'climb', seen in the names Rath Celerdain ('Lampwrights' Street') and Rath Dínen ('Silent Street'), both in Minas Tirith. Also seen in Andrath ('long way', or 'long street') where the Greenway ran through a long gorge, and also in Cirith Forn en Andrath (translated 'northern pass of the long climb', with the original interpretation of rath as 'climb') the Sindarin name of the High Pass above Rivendell. As the previous example shows, rath can bear several interpretations; it goes back ultimately to a root rat- meaning 'walk', and can be applied in various forms to paths, streets, climbs, crossings and even river courses. An example of the last is in Rathlóriel ('Goldenbed') where rath describes the course of the bed of the river.
réd (Bëorian) from rêda, 'heir'. This is a rare example of a word from the Bëorian dialect of the Mannish Taliska tongue. It appears (uniquely) in the name Eluréd, meaning 'heir of Elu (Thingol)'. The name was chosen because Beren (a descendant of Bëor) was Eluréd's grandfather, and the name thus reflects Eluréd's own decent from the House of Bëor of the Edain.
reg (Sindarin) 'holly', from a root word meaning 'spike' or 'thorn', referring to the spines on holly leaves. Reg was the specific form of this word used in Doriath, and in the variant of Sindarin spoken there, regorn meant 'holly tree', from which derived Region, '(forest) of holly trees'. The more general form outside Doriath was ereg, hence Eregion ('land of holly', or Hollin). The words reg and ereg are always pronounced with a hard 'g' sound (as in the word 'garden'), and so Region is pronounced like 're'ggee-on' rather than the English word 'region'.
rem (Elvish root) 'net' or 'mesh', seen uniquely in Remmirath (literally 'net of a host of jewels', but translated more simply as 'Netted Stars'). The etymology of this element is uncertain, but it may perhaps be related to rempa, meaning 'hooked'.
rhim (Sindarin) 'rush', as in the torrential flow of a river or stream. This name element appears in various forms (including rhib or rhimmo) all deriving ultimately from the root rip-, meaning 'rush' or 'fly' in a more general sense. Rhim appears in a single known river name, Rhimdath, the stream known in Mannish as the 'Rushdown', that flowed eastward out of the Misty Mountains and into Anduin above the Carrock.
rim (Sindarin) 'large number, host', commonly used as a suffix for collective plurals to describe peoples and cultures. It is often seen in the Elvish names for different races of divisions of peoples, as for example in Edhelrim, ('Elves', ultimately from 'star-people'), Naugrim ('Stunted People', that is 'Dwarves'), Onodrim ('Ent-people') and so on. This ending could also be attached to a geographic name to describe the inhabitants of that region, as in Gondolindrim ('people of Gondolin'), Haradrim ('people the Harad') or Falathrim ('people of the Falas'). In the case of the Halethrim, the suffix is connected to a historical leader of the people, so the word translates as 'People of Haleth'. Finally, -rim could also be attached to some quality or aspect of a people, so Mithrim ('grey people' or 'Sindar', referring to a northern land where they dwelt), Galadhrim ('tree people', the Silvan Elves of Lórien) or Rohirrim ('horse-master-people', the Riders of Rohan).
rin 1 (Quenya) a demonym-forming suffix, equivalent to endings like -ian or -ish in English, used to create adjectives relating to cultures or peoples, and particularly the names of their languages. So, for example, Eldarin was used to describe things relating to the Eldar, and especially their languages. Eldarin therefore translates approximately as 'Elvish' (though the Eldar were strictly only a part of the entire people of the Elves). Similar cases apply to examples like Nandorin, Noldorin, Sindarin or Telerin, relating to the Elvish peoples of the Nandor, Noldor, Sindar and Teleri, respectively.
rin 2 (Sindarin) an adjectival ending, turning a root form into a descriptive word, used especially for plural forms (the singular being -ren). For example, there are two Elvish names for the Fords of Isen; singular Athrad Angren ('ford of Isen', where Angren means 'of iron') and plural Ethraid Engrin ('Fords of Isen'). Similarly, the Iron Mountains of the far North were Ered Engrin in Elvish, and the Grey Mountains were Ered Mithrin.
riven (English) an archaic word meaning 'deeply cut' (from the rare verb 'rive' meaning to cut or tear apart), seen in Rivendell, which is an English translation of Elvish Imladris, 'deeply cut valley'.
ro (Elvish root) from the ancient word roko, 'horse', specifically in the compound roko-kwén, 'horse-person' (that is, a rider). That term was worn down over history to form roquen, 'knight', with roko being reduced uniquely in this case (due to the duplicated k sounds) to a simple ro-.
roch (Sindarin) 'horse', in Arroch ('noble horse', the steed of Húrin) and Rochallor ('?golden horse', the steed of Fingolfin). When the Men of the Éothéod settled Calenardhon, it gained the new name Rochand, 'horse land', a name that developed over time into the more familiar Rohan. Similarly, its people were originally named Rochír-rim ('people of the horse-lords') which gave rise to the form Rohirrim. Roch can also be seen in the word rochon, 'horse rider', especially in the title Rochon Methestel, 'Rider of Last Hope'.
rod (Sindarin) occurs as an ending for several names, each 'Sindarinised' from an original Quenya form. Most commonly that original form was ráto, meaning 'champion' or 'mighty one'. So, we have Finrod from Findaráto, ('mighty descendant of Finwë', or literally 'mighty hair') and his brother Angrod from Angaráto ('iron champion'). The name Amrod had a circuitous evolution, but one reading would relate it to Ambaráto, 'lofty champion'. The Quenya source is not always ráto, and we have an alternative in Damrod, which comes from Nambarauto, 'copper-hammerer'. This use of rod for names derived from Quenya is not to be confused with the native Sindarin rod, which is related to rond and means 'cavern', especially in the sense of a cavern used as a dwelling.
roh (Sindarin) a form of roch, meaning 'horse', most prominent in the name Rohan, which derives from Rochand, 'horse-land', and also found in the name of Aragorn's horse Roheryn ('horse of the lady'). Related was rohir, meaning 'horse-lord' or 'knight', from which the people of Rohan were named the Rohirrim, 'host of the horse-lords'; the same term appears in Elrohir, which means 'Elf-knight'.
rómen (Quenya) 'east', especially the East as geographical area. This element is perhaps most notably used in the names taken by two Kings of Gondor who achieved great victories over the Easterlings, Rómendacil I and his descendant Rómendacil II, whose names both mean 'East-victor' or 'East-slayer'. Rómenna was a port on the eastern coast of Númenor, with a name meaning 'Eastward' or 'towards the East'. A variant on this element probably also appears in Rómestamo, one of various names for the two lost Blue Wizards, which appears to mean 'East-helper'.
rond (Sindarin) 'vault' or 'dome', and by extension used of caverns or halls with vaulted or domed roofs, or metaphorically for the dome of heaven. This element appears in Aglarond, the 'Glittering Caves' of Helm's Deep, and also in Hadhodrond ('Dwarf cavern' or 'Dwarf halls', a name for Khazad-dúm) and Merethrond (the 'Great Hall of Feasts' in Minas Tirith). The name Elrond includes rond in two different ways; the name was at one time interpreted 'Elf of the cave', but later as 'star-dome' in reference to the vault of heaven. Combined with ost 'fortress', rond became othrond ('fortress cavern') as in Nargothond ('underground fortress on Narog'). Rond possibly also appears in the sense of 'castle' in the name Alcarondas (given as 'Castle of the Sea', though this is clearly not a literal translation, and the intended derivation remains obscure).
rory (Irish) Apparently an anglicisation of the Irish name Ruaidhrí, meaning 'red king'. Within the context of Tolkien's tales, 'Rory' was an abbreviation of Rorimac (the name of one of the Masters of Buckland) but in reality it appears that the name 'Rory' came first, and was expanded by Tolkien to fit the pattern of names used by the Brandybucks.
ros (Elvish root) a word originally meaning 'drip', but with a range of related meanings such as 'dew', 'fine rain', 'drop', 'spray' or 'foam', depending on context. This element appears in the names of two waterfalls, Rauros ('roaring spray') and Celebros ('silver rain'), and also in the name of the island of Cair Andros ('Ship of Long-foam', named for the breaking waters at its northern end). It also appears in the name Elros (given as both 'Elf of the spray' and 'star-foam'), and historically in Maedhros (variously translated 'spray of light' or 'glitter of metal'). This element may also be seen in Ladros ('plain of ?dew') though the interpretation here is not certain, and several other possibilities exist.
roth 1 (Sindarin) a dialectal word for 'cave' (the more usual Sindarin word was rond, a cavern or underground dwelling). The form roth was associated especially with the Elves of Doriath, whose capital was at Menegroth ('Thousand Caves') and the same word apparently appears in Androth, the caverns of Mithrim (not translated, but apparently 'long caves').
roth 2 (Adûnaic) 'sea-foam', seen uniquely in the name Rothinzil 'Foam-flower', a Númenórean translation of Vingilot, the name of the ship of Eärendil. Not to be confused with the common -roth ending in many Elvish names, which is typically derived from a pluralising suffix.
rowan (from Old Norse or an allied language) as the name of a tree, ultimately derived from Old Norse rauðr 'red' (or the equivalent in a related Scandinavian tongue), in reference to the tree's bright red berries. Used as a personal name for the Shire-hobbit Rowan, a great-grandmother of Samwise Gamgee.
rud (Germanic) from hrōð, meaning 'fame' or 'glory'. This Germanic element appears in the names of three Hobbits, all belonging to the Bolger family. The earliest of these was Rudolph ('fame wolf'), and Rudolph had two great-nephews named Rudigar ('fame spear') and Rudibert ('fame bright'). (Incidentally, this means that the name Rudigar is cognate with Hrothgar, the name of the king of Heorot in the poem Beowulf.)
rufus (Latin) 'red-haired', in the name Rufus Burrows, a (presumably red-haired) member of the Burrows family of Shire-hobbits.
rûm (Elvish root) 'secret', 'mystery' and hence rui, 'whisper'. This is speculated by Christopher Tolkien to be the source of the first syllable of the name Rúmil, the loremaster of Tirion who was the inventor of writing (the name was also shared by an Elf of Lórien). The -il ending can have various possible meanings, but most commonly it creates an agental noun from a verb, so Rúmil would mean something like 'whisperer'.

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