At its height the city of Osgiliath spanned the Great River Anduin with at least three bridges, including a great stone span. In III 2475, that great bridge was broken during the invasion of the newly emerged Uruk-hai, but others remained, and we know that at least one stood until nearly the end of the Third Age. In June III 3018, that last bridge was finally broken by the Gondorian defenders of the city, including Boromir and Faramir, who chose to abandon East Osgiliath rather than leave an easy passage across the river.
The result was a difficult and dangerous ford where the bridges of Osgiliath had been, now known as the Fords of Anduin. With the western bank still defended by a Gondorian garrison, the passage of the fords from the east was a perilous venture. Nonetheless the Witch-king's armies succeeded through the use of rafts and floats, and were able to overcome the garrison and begin the Siege of Gondor.
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