The Encyclopedia of Arda - an interactive guide to the world of J.R.R. Tolkien
Apparently originated in the southern lands of Middle-earth
A gigantic relative of modern elephants
A name probably from the language of the Haradrim1, of unknown meaning
Other names
'Mûmakil' is a plural form; an individual creature of this kind would be known as a 'mûmak'


About this entry:

  • Updated 29 February 2004
  • Updates planned: 2


Monsters out of the southern lands

A name for the great elephantine beasts of the Harad, and especially those that the Haradrim brought to war in the late Third Age.



The only mention of the origin of the name comes from an early draft of Appendix F to The Lord of the Rings, which states 'Of the Speech of Men of the East and allies of Sauron all that appears is múmak, a name of the great elephant of the Harad' (The Peoples of Middle-earth I 2, The Appendix on Languages). Given the connection of these creatures to the Harad, it seems reasonable to assume that the allies in question were the Haradrim. It should be noted that this comment did not survive to the published version of the Appendix, and so cannot be considered as definitive.

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