In general use, a writer of Tengwar did not use separate characters for vowels, but instead represented them by the inclusion of separate markings above or below the consonantal letters. There was, however, an alternative means of writing Tengwar known as 'full writing', in which vowel characters were included, just as in our own Roman alphabet. In this mode, it was necessary to mark which vowels were long, and to do that an andaith ('long mark') was used.
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