The surname and title used by Thorin III, the son of Dáin Ironfoot. He became King under the Mountain at the time of the War of the Ring, when his father was lost in the Battle of Dale. Thorin himself was besieged in Erebor for several days, but ultimately survived to become King in his own right.
The origins of the name 'Stonehelm' are mysterious: Tolkien doesn't provide us with any account that would shed light on its meaning. The most important historical event that involved Thorin III was the Battle of Dale, so we might speculate that the name is connected to that battle (perhaps even as a reference to his hiding beneath the Lonely Mountain) but no definitive explanation is available.
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