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The earliest use described Glaurung, who was first seen in I 260 and slain in I 499; also used of Armenelos, which stood throughout most of the Second Age (destroyed in the Downfall of II 3319, at the same time as Ar-Pharazôn, who also bore this title); also used of Smaug, of uncertain age, who was slain in III 2941
Title of
The Dragons Glaurung and Smaug, King Ar-Pharazôn of Númenor, and Armenelos the royal city of that isle


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  • Updated 17 June 2012
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The Golden

A title for Dragons and Kings

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A title of the dragons Glaurung and Smaug, and of Ar-Pharazôn, the last King of Númenor and his royal city.

Armenelos The City of the Kings of Númenor, that lay to the east of the Meneltarma near the centre of the island kingdom, is sometimes referred to as 'Armenelos the Golden', presumably in reference to its richly opulent architecture.
Ar-Pharazôn The last of the Kings of Númenor brought Númenor to the height of its power and military might. Seeking the everlasting life that he imagined was to be found in the Undying Lands, and corrupted by Sauron, he led an armada to Aman, and so brought about the Downfall of his kingdom.
Glaurung The Dragon Glaurung apparently earned the title 'Golden' because of his golden colour (he is also called the 'Gold-worm of Angband'), though it may also refer to the hunger for gold and treasure that he shared with all his kind.
Smaug Like Glaurung, Smaug's title of 'Golden' seems to derive partly from his appearance (he was red-golden in colour) and partly from his love of gold. The title no doubt also reflects that fact that his underside was encrusted in gold from the hoard he kept in Erebor.

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