One of many different kinds1 of leaping amphibians found in ponds and marshes. They were known to exist at least in the Shire (indeed, the town of Frogmorton - meaning 'frog marsh' - took its name from the frogs that lived on the nearby Water). Frogs were clearly known far outside the Shire as well: even the Orcs of Mordor were aware of them. The Orc Shagrat described Gollum as looking like a frog, and indeed he is often so described, especially due to his agility when swimming and his ability to make prodigious leaps.
In the Shire, at least, the kind of frog most often seen would probably be the European Common Frog prevalent in northwestern Europe today. Elsewhere in Middle-earth, many different varieties of frog could presumably also be found.
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