A series of characters of the Tengwar representing variations on the sound 'k'. The series was named for the character calma, literally meaning 'light', but selected here for its initial 'k' sound. In normal use, these were the letters formed with a telco (stem) to the right, and a lúva (bow) curving up and to the left. Depending on the system in use, these 'bows' might be open or closed. The basic sounds making up this series were known as calma ('k'), anga ('g'), harma ('kh'), and anca ('gh'). There were further additions in some systems, such as noldo, representing the nasal sound 'ng'.